For my money, some of the very sharpest, most creative, most genuinely helpful stuff being written on Christian faith and (homo)sexuality is by my friend Steve Holmes, a Baptist minister who teaches theology at the University of St. Andrews. I’ve mentioned Steve before here at SF—if you haven’t already, do read about his “Queer Hippo” project, and check out this interview with Vicki Beeching—and I wanted to mention him again today because he’s just posted the paper he gave at this year’s meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society.
Here’s an excerpt that I hope will entice a lot of you to go and read the whole essay:
At some point in the twentieth century, we in the West became convinced that sexual activity is necessary for healthy and properly adult human life. Let me, inexactly, call this the ‘Freudian’ position. The call to celibacy in this context sounds like an act of astonishing cruelty, depriving someone of a basic necessity for human flourishing.
Our inherited ethical tradition does not have the language or arguments to deal with this challenge, because it is not the challenge it was crafted to address. We have, literally, nothing to say theologically (and this is true whether we think the right way forward is conservative or progressive, which is why there are presently so few good books on sexual ethics from any side).
It gets worse, though: for a couple of generations, we Evangelicals – and all other Protestants – essentially surrendered to this error by making marriage an inevitable part of Christian maturity. We constructed church programmes on the assumption that single people were either young adults preparing for marriage or elderly and widowed; we doubted ministerial candidates who was not married, because they could therefore not be properly ‘grown up’. This was a capitulation to an error, but it sort of worked OK – until the churches were forced to acknowledge that some people are lesbian/gay/exclusively same-sex attracted, and so not able to accept the inevitability of (traditional) marriage. If we think marriage belongs necessarily to the fulness of life, not in a response to death, then we have no answers for lesbian and gay disciples that are not culturally unimaginable and unspeakably cruel.
We can see this capitulation working itself out in the way in which, in many churches, the beginning and end of sexual ethics is telling young people to ‘save themselves for marriage’ as if sex was an uncomplicated human good that merely needs to be properly located by our moral reasoning. Let us be completely clear: that is not a Christian sexual ethic; that is the ethic of a pagan fertility cult that worships sex because it cannot believe in the resurrection of Christ. We should rather teach people, young and old, married and single – and in complex erotic relationships – that their lived responses to their sexual desires must be ever increasingly ordered to the resurrected life of the Kingdom.
The deep reflection of the Church on the Scriptures has led to the conviction that there are two, and only two, ways of life that are so ordered: marriage and celibacy. Marriage – if it is to be something good, and not merely a concession to our stony hearts, is absolutely not a space for the unlimited indulgence of sexual desires. Rather, it is a set of practices in and through which we learn to desire differently. We’ve heard already Paul insisting on a mutual bodily surrender between spouses in 1 Corinthians; these internal acts of mutual submission, of re-ordering our sinful and selfish desires, are reinforced by the necessary openness to procreation that exists in the marriage relationship. Children, in the light of the resurrection of Christ, are not a way of responding to death, but an opportunity for our crabbed and incurved selves to be opened out in love.
Celibacy, if it is to be something good, and not merely the presence of an absence, is similarly a set of practices in and through which we learn to desire differently. Lacking the opportunity to endlessly submit to a spouse, the celibate Christian will intentionally seek ways to open her life out in love – and the church, if it is to be faithful to the gospel of the resurrection – must offer her such ways. Inevitably these will involve practices of community, probably ordered by rule; I strongly suspect that they will need to involve the sorts of vowed friendships that Wesley Hill was talking about in part on Tuesday night.
Beautiful. Thank you Wesley. This could have been a Catholic sermon.
This is an incredibly important contribution that ought to be shouted from the rooftops.
The whole evangelical “theology” of gender and sexuality is nothing more than warmed-over Freudian social theory, bolstered by some highly selective proof-texting to create the appearance of biblical warrant. In fact, I dare say that one of the central tenets of modern evangelicalism is its diehard commitment to Freudian social theory. In fact, as Freudian construals of sexuality have begun to weaken under the criticism of third-wave feminism and queer theory, evangelicals have become Freud’s staunchest defenders.
This is why I don’t accept the notion that evangelicals are opposed to gay sex merely because it contradicts the views set forth by the biblical writers. It’s much more likely that evangelical opposition to gay sex stems from its failure to reflect the wisdom of St. Freud.
I read the full piece again. This article says everything I’ve been thinking for the past decade. I love the line about evangelicals conforming to a sexual ethic that’s more consistent with what one would expect of a fertility cult that rejects the Resurrection. Indeed!
All the evangelicals I know would be horrified that you mention them and Freud in the same breath. 😉
Yes, that’s true. But it doesn’t seem to stop them from drinking heavily from the Freudian well. And that’s why discussing these issues with evangelicals is so difficult. They seem to have a mental block that prevents them from recognizing how much their thinking has been shaped by Freudian assumptions. After all, the Freudian notion of “family values” has become so central to evangelical identity that it’s hard to imagine what evangelicalism would be without it.
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